Simple Harmonic Motion

College of Science and Computer Science

Physical Sciences Department

Physics 2


Experiment #2



1. Abstract

In this experiment periodic motion involving a swinging pendulum was studied. The period is the time it takes for a vibrating object to complete its cycle. In the case of pendulum, it is the time for the pendulum to start at one extreme, travel to the opposite extreme, and then return to the original location. As the pendulum oscillated, we gathered its data. When analyzed, the period of the motion was found to be given by: 2 Therefore, the period, or time to complete a full oscillation, of a pendulum was found to be dependent on its length. To find out what is the experimental determination of our g we used the formula: T2 =42 (L/g). The value that we solved for g is 983.88 m/s2. With the assumption of small angles, the frequency and period of the pendulum are independent of the initial angular displacement amplitude. All simple pendulums should have the same period regardless of their initial angle and regardless of their mass.



2. Actual Materials Used

  • 5 meter light string
  • Iron stand with horizontal bar extension
  • Stopwatch
  • Protractor or angle indicator
  • Small bob (spherical object)
  • Vernier caliper
  • Meter stick and ruler
  • Triple beam balance


 3. Data and Results

 Mass of the bob:                              m = 11.3 g

Length of the string:                       l = 120 cm

Diameter of the bob:                     d = 3.59 cm                         r = 180 cm

Angular displacement:                  = 100



Table 1: Length of pendulum, Time per vibration, period, % error, Frequency, Angular frequency

Length of pendulum (cm) Average time for 50 vibrations Period, T (sec) Period2, T2 (sec2) Linear frequency, f (Hz) Angular frequency, w (rad/s) % error
120 + r 64.42 2.15 2.22 4.62 4.93 0.47 0.45 2.92 2.83 3.15 6.29 4.44 3.18
100 + r 59.88 2.00 2.03 4.00 4.12 0.50 0.49 3.14 3.08 1.48 2.91 2.04 1.95
80 + r 51.85 1.73 1.82 3.00 3.11 0.58 0.55 3.63 3.46 4.95 9.37 5.45 4.91
60 + r 46.51 1.55 1.58 2.40 2.50 0.65 0.63 4.05 3.96 1.90 4.00 3.17 2.29
40 + r 38.40 1.28 1.30 1.64 1.69 0.78 0.77 4.91 4.84 1.54 2.95 1.30 1.45
20 + r 29.38 0.98 0.94 0.96 0.88 1.02 1.06 6.41 6.66 4.26 9.09 3.77 3.75
80 + r


34.2 2.04 1.82 4.16 3.31 0.49 0.55 3.08 3.46 12.09 27.68 10.91 10.98



Graph 1

  1. Based on the data recorded, plot the curve to show the relationships between the periods, T (ordinate) and length of the pendulum, L (abscissa).

 km k.JPG

Discuss the significance of the shape of the graph:

The importance of the relationship between the period and the length is to show how we can calculate the gravity. The period T increased steadily with respect to the length l (Graph 1). According to the graph for the EV, at 20 m long, the square of the cycle was 0.98 s. At the length of 120 m, it increased and reached a peak of 2.15 s. And for the TV, at 20 m long, the square of the cycle was 0.94 s. At the length of 120 m, it increased and reached a peak of 2.22 s. The Length of the string will affect the time period of a pendulum because it will mean that the pendulum travels a greater distance in its oscillation.


Graph 2

  1. Based on the data recorded, plot the curve to show the relationships between the square of the period, T2 (ordinate) and length of the pendulum, L (abscissa).


Discuss the significance of the shape of the graph:

The importance of the relationship between the square of the period and the length is to show how we can calculate the gravity. The square of the period T2 increased steadily with respect to the length l (Graph 2). According to the graph for the EV, at 20 m long, the square of the cycle was 0.96 s. At the length of 120 m, it increased and reached a peak of 4.62 s. And for the TV, at 20 m long, the square of the cycle was 0.88 s. At the length of 120 m, it increased and reached a peak of 4.93 s. The Length of the string will affect the time period of a pendulum because it will mean that the pendulum travels a greater distance in its oscillation.


 1. Compute the value g, the acceleration due to gravity from the slope of the graph in question no. 2 use the equation below.

T2 =42 (L/g)

Write the computations:



2. Compare the value of g obtained in question no. 3 with the standard value of g. include the computation of the % error.



The true value is more close to the standard value of gravity 975 m/s2 vs 981 m/s2. Also the percentage error of the true value is close to zero 0.61% compare to the experimental value which is 6.12%. A percentage very close to zero means you are very close to your targeted value, which is good.

 3. Compare the period when the angle  is over 300 to that of the period  100

8 + r  100 = 1.73

8 + r  300 = 2.04

Changing the starting angle of the pendulum (how far you pull it back to get it started) has only a very slight effect on the frequency. The smaller the angle, the shorter the period will be. For larger amplitudes or angles, the amplitude does affect the period of the pendulum, with a larger amplitude leading to a larger period. However, for small amplitudes (typically around a few degrees), the amplitude has no effect on the period of a pendulum.


4. Interpretation of Data

In the examination of a pendulum involves the study of its periodic motion. Objects that exhibit this type of motion follow sinusoidal paths and experience oscillations between their maximum values of position. Through this experiment we are able to do an accurate way to represent and study periodic motion that is through configuring an oscillating pendulum and analyze its motion in relation to different lengths of attached string. As can be seen in the table, alterations in length definitely have an effect upon the period of the pendulum. As the string is lengthened, the period of the pendulum is increased. There is a direct relationship between the period and the length. The table shows us that in a simple pendulum system, only the change of the length affects the period, but not the change of mass.

Overall, the observed data was found to produce values for the period that were related to the length of the string by the following equation: T2 =4π2 (L/g). When the length is changed, the pendulum will take more or less time to oscillate, depending on its length and acceleration due to gravity. Therefore, the period may be varied by changing either of these two factors the length or gravity. Since acceleration due to gravity is constant on Earth (g = 9.8 m/s2), the only dependent factor is the length of the pendulum.

The sources of error in our experiment is random, systematic and human errors during the experiment and these were:

  • The human error of reaction time when counting the number of cycles completed. Because the spring and pendulum were moving quite fast, it was hard to count the number of cycles that had completed.
  • The systematic error of not using ideal equipment such as a frictionless and massless string for the pendulum.
  • The systematic error of air resistance (friction) for the simple pendulum. Due to air resistance (friction), the pendulum can started to slow down and not return to the same height as more cycles were completed.
  • The random error of not releasing the pendulum at the same height for each trial. Releasing the pendulum at slightly different heights resulted in differences of potential energy during each trial.


5. Conclusion

In conclusion a pendulum will exhibit a period that varies depending on its length, according to the given equation: T2 =4π2 (L/g). We also learned that pendulums move by constantly transferring energy from one form to another. Pendulums, like all simple harmonic oscillators, are great demonstrators of the conservation of energy: the idea that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred. The energy you end up with has to equal the energy you start with. The reason pendulums don’t move forever is because no system is perfect. Eventually, all the energy you provided is lost to the environment and the pendulum will stop swinging.

The purpose of this lab was to test the simple harmonic motion exhibited by a pendulum, and to see how the different variables affected the motion of said pendulum. The independent variables we tested were the length of the string, and the angle of release. This experiment focused on simple harmonic motion using a pendulum. A simple harmonic motion accurately models the motion that a pendulum exhibits when it swings from side to side. A simple harmonic motion will remain in motion as long as the system does not experience any type of external force such as friction, or an opposite applied force. This experiment demonstrated how a pendulum behave in a simple harmonic motion.


6. Guide Questions

  1. Is the period dependent on the length of the pendulum? Explain.

Changing the length of a pendulum while keeping other factors constant changes the length of the period of the pendulum. Longer pendulums swing with a lower frequency than shorter pendulums, and thus have a longer period. The period of the simple pendulum oscillations increases as the length of the pendulum increases. The period depends only on the length L of the string and the value of the gravitational field strength g, according to:

T = 2  . The length of a pendulum affects its swing because longer pendulums swing at lower frequencies. A lower frequency causes a longer period and a slower rate of swing.

2. Would the mass of the bob affect the period of the pendulum? Explain.

Changing the mass of the pendulum bob does not affect the frequency of the pendulum. The period of the simple pendulum oscillations does not depend on the mass of the load, nor on the angle of revolution. The mass has no effect on the period of the pendulum. Since the force of gravity is proportional to the object it is acting on, the mass will end up having no effect whatsoever on the period (or frequency) of the pendulum. In F = ma, force is directly proportional to mass. As mass increases, so does the force on the pendulum, but acceleration remains the same. (It is due to the effect of gravity.) Because acceleration remains the same, so does the time over which the acceleration occurs which is the period.

3. A 100 gram sphere executes a simple harmonic motion with the frequency of 20 Hz and amplitude of 0.5 cm. What is:

a. The constant k for the restoring force acting on it?



b. The maximum acceleration?



c. The total energy at any point of the motion?





7. References


Comparative Anatomy Introduction

Comparative  Anatomy

What is Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates?

  • study of the structure of vertebrates (descriptive anatomy)and the functional significance of the structure (functional anatomy).
  • Also deals with the study of history and of animals that no longer inhabit the earth and are known to us only by fossil records.

Functional Anatomy

  • It is dependent on knowledge of biomechanics, physiology, ecology and ethology.
  • It studies how structures perform specific functions and compares how different taxa have adapted to similar environments; a method for understanding the proximate causation of change.

Descriptive Anatomy

  • Draws much from paleontology and evolutionary biology as well as other fields that may provide evidence of evolutionary affinity, including cytology, biochemistry, and molecular biology

Anatomy VS. Morphology?

  • Anatomy is mainly observations and descriptions of structures while Morphology mainly interprets these observed and described structures.

Fields involved in the study of Comparative Anatomy

  • Zoology
  • Physiology
  • Histology
  • Genetics
  • Ecology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Evolutionary biology
  • Phylogeny


History of Anatomy

  • Anatomy comes from Greek words
  • ana + tome which means “to cut up” or “to dissect”.
  • Began in prehistoric times (people cut up carcasses of animals they hunted).
  • Primitive artist made crude drawings of animals preserved in cave paintings
  • Ancient Egyptians mummified these animals.


  • Early works in anatomy was based mostly on descriptions of organ systems, muscle system (conducted on domestic animals).
  • Oldest Anatomical works in western civilization were written by Greek Philosophers and physicians during the last 400 B.C.


  • Described and classified about 540 different kinds of animals during the 300 B.C.


  • Greek physician (Rome) during 165-200 A.D. assembled all available Greek anatomical writings and added some of his own dissection of apes.

Middle Ages

  • Very few advancements in anatomical study (biological thoughts were relatively infrequent).

After Middle Ages

  • Include the study of functional anatomy.

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) 

  • and other Italian artists began to make their own anatomical
  • Total number of bones in the human bod 206 bones

Andreas Vesalius

  • Galen’s writings remained the primary authority on human anatomy for nearly 1,500 years until the Belgian anatomist Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) pointed out that many of the Galen’s observations were inaccurate because they were based on animal dissections.
  • In 1543 Vesalius published De Humani Corporis Fabrica (On the Structure of the Human Body) renewing the interest in anatomy of animals.

Pierre Belon (1517-1564),

  • a French naturalist and physician in 1559, published an illustration of a human and bird skeleton showing that the skeleton correspond almost bone for bone.
  • He attributed the similarity to the manifestation of a basic architectural plan or archetype in the mind of the Creator.

The Renaissance in Europe (14th -16th centuries) was a period of rapidly increasing knowledge about human anatomy, but some influential scientists continued to be interested in Comparative Anatomy.

William Harvey

  • English physician,
  • Best known for his studies on the circulation of the blood.
  • Also dissected many animals and advocated the study of Comparative Anatomy.

Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712)

  • English scientist and plant physiologist.
  • The first one to use the term COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.
  • Published a book in 1681 describing the anatomy of stomachs and intestines in several species.

Carolus Linneaus (1707-1778)

  • devised the binomial system for naming plants and animals which forms the basis of modern Taxonomy.
  • (1735) published Systema Naturae, the 1st of several publications that presented his new taxonomic arrangement for the plant and animal kingdoms.
  • He philosophically argued that species were unchangeable, created originally as we find them today (based on creation as described in the book of Genesis of the Holy Bible.

Louis Jean-Marie Daubenton

  • Compared the anatomies of many different animals in a section of Buffon’s Histoire Naturelle (Natural History), a 36 volume work published between 1749 and 1789 that contained observations about the mineralogical, botanical and zoological characteristics of the Earth.
  • This section of the Natural History is today considered the first extensive work in Comparative Anatomy.

Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829)

  • Made the 1st scientific division of the animal kingdom into Vertebrata and Invertebrata
  • Wrote and published Philosophie Zoologique (1809) that discusses the three issues of evolution by means of the inheritance of acquired characteristics:
    • Fact (species changes through time)
    • Course(progressive changes in species along an ascending scale)
    • Mechanism (need itself produces heritable evolutionary changes)).

Georges Leopold Chretien Frederic  Dagobert Cuvier (1769-1832)

  • Argued that species are immutable, stating that the efficient design of each animal is evidence that it could not have changed since its creation.
  • Believed that Earth suffered several mass extinctions and recreations.
  • He argued that organisms must be understood as functional wholes.
  • Historie Naturelle des Poisons (Natural History of Fishes), his final contribution.

Louis Rodolphe  Agassiz (1807-1873)

  • A Swiss –American paleontologist and geologist
  • Published “Studies on Glaciers”
  • Considered as the first modern teacher of comparative anatomy
  • His teaching was particularly famous for his ability to draw with both hands at once while still continuing to talk

Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913)

  • Developed the concept of “survival of the fittest” (1858) from the observation that the human population increases faster than food to correspond with Darwin’s “survival of the few”

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

  • Developed the modern Theory of Evolution.
  • Helped to established the evolutionary basis of our modern synthesis of comparative, functional and adaptive morphology and anatomy.

Sir Richard Owen (1804-1892)

  • A British zoologist published the 3rd edition of his Comparative Anatomy in 1871
  • Developed the concept of homology and analogy.
  • He was instrumental in obtaining and describing Archeopteryx that provided evidence for the theory of evolution but opposed the theory of evolution by Natural

Thomas Huxley (1825-1895)

  • A British biologist.
  • Published his Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrate Animals in 1871.
  • Also established the modern concept of the evolution of the vertebrate skull.

Karl Ernst Von Baer (1792-1876)

  • Published Epistola de Ovi Mammalium et Hominis Genesi (Papers on the Origin of the mammalian Egg and Man) in 1872.

Ernst Heinrich Haeckel (1834-1919)

  • German biologist, contributed to the knowledge of three germ layers that are found in the early embryos of most animals and develop into the organs of adults known as the biogenetic law (ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny).


Phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree:


  • Node – represents a taxonomic unit. This can be either an existing species or an ancestor
  • Branch – defines the relationship between the taxa in terms of descent and ancestry.
  • Branch length – usually represents the number of changes that have occurred in the branch
  • Topology – the branching pattern of the tree
  • Root – the common ancestor of all taxa
  • Distant scale – scale that represents the number of differences between organisms or sequences
  • Clade – a group of two or more taxa or DNA sequences that includes both their common ancestor and all of their descendants


  • Scaled branches – are often calibrated to represent the passage of time. Such trees have a theoretical basis in the particular gene or genes under analysis
  • Unscaled branches – the branch length is not proportional to the number of changes that has occurred, although the actual number may be indicated numerically somewhere in the branch


  • Rooted tree – there is a particular node called the root, representing a common ancestor from which a unique path leads to any other node
  • Unrooted tree – only specifies the relationship among species, without identifying a common ancestor or evolutionary path


Comparative Anatomy reviewer Part 2

Homologous Structures

The bones are color-coded to demonstrate that all of the organisms in the picture must have evolved from a common ancestor. Homology (shared characteristics among different species) is presented as solid evidence for biological evolution.



  • anatomical features that have the same form or function in different species that have no known common ancestor.
  • established through behavioral and biomechanical analysis
  • may or may not be homologous
  • Examples: insect wing & bird’s wing, Fish fin; whale flipper

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  • Analogous structures: wing of an insect, bird bat and pterosaur
  • Bat wings consist of flaps of skin stretched between the bones of the fingers and arm.
  • Bird wings consist of feathers extending all along the arm.
  • These structural dissimilarities suggest that bird wings and bat wings were not inherited from a common ancestor with wings.

The idea that bird wings and bat wings were not inherited from a common ancestor with wings is illustrated by the phylogeny below, which is based on a large number of other characters.


  • Bird and bat wings are analogous — that is, they have separate evolutionary origins, but are superficially similar because they have both experienced natural selection that shaped them to play a key role in flight. Analogies are the result of convergent evolution.
  • Birds and bats did not inherit wings from a common ancestor with wings, but they did inherit forelimbs from a common ancestor with forelimbs.



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  • features of two or more organisms are related by similarity of appearance
  • similarities cannot be explained by either homology or analogy
  • non homologous structural similarities between species.  In these cases, the common ancestor did not have the same anatomical structures as its descendants.  Instead, the similarities are due to independent development in the now separate evolutionary lines.
  • Misleading similarities.
  • Homoplastic structures can be the result of parallelism, convergence, analogies, or mere chance.
  • Ex: Sail fish and Pelycosaur ; Mimicry & camouflage


Mimicry or Camouflage


The Distinctions and Relations among Common Ancestry (Homology), Common Function (Analogy) and Common Appearance (Homoplasy)


Homoplastic structures can be the result of parallelism, convergence, analogies, or mere chance.

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  • Parallelism, or parallel evolution, is a similar evolutionary development in different species lines after divergence from a common ancestor that did not have the characteristic but did have an initial anatomical feature that led to it.
  • Convergence, or convergent evolution, is the development of a similar anatomical feature in distinct species lines after divergence from a common ancestor that did not have the initial trait that led to it.  (bat and bird wings.)


Linnaean scheme of Classification

  • Lumps organisms together based on presumed homologies.

Assumption :

  • The more homologies two organisms share, the closer they must be in terms of evolutionary distance.
  • The higher, more inclusive divisions of the Linnaean system are created by including together closely related clusters of the immediately lower divisions.


The result is a hierarchical system of classification with the highest category consisting of all living things.



  • This involves making a distinction between derived and primitive traits when evaluating the importance of homologies in determining placement of organisms within the Linnaean classification system.
  • Derived traits are those that have changed from the ancestral form and/or function.
  • An example is the foot of a modern horse.  Its distant early mammal ancestor had five digits.  The bones of these digits have been largely fused together in horses giving them essentially only one toe with a hoof.
  • In contrast, primates have retained the primitive characteristic of having five digits on the ends of their hands and feet.  Animals sharing a great many homologies that were recently derived, rather than only ancestral, are more likely to have a recent common ancestor.
  • Evolutionary trees depict clades.
  • A clade is a group of organisms that includes an ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor. You can think of a clade as a branch on the tree of life. Some examples of clades are shown on the tree below.


There are three basic assumptions in cladistics:

  1. Change in characteristics occurs in lineages over time.
    The assumption that characteristics of organisms change over time is the most important one in cladistics. It is only when characteristics change that we are able to recognize different lineages or groups. We call the “original” state of the characteristic plesiomorphic and the “changed” state apomorphic.kbbkbk
  2. Any group of organisms is related by descent from a common ancestor. This assumption is supported by many lines of evidence and essentially means that all life on Earth today is related and shares a common ancestor. Because of this, we can take any collection of organisms and hypothesize a meaningful pattern of relationships, provided we have the right kind of information.dyrjyt
  3. There is a bifurcating, or branching, pattern of lineage-splitting.
    This assumption suggests that when a lineage splits, it divides into exactly two groups.


Development: Ontogeny & Phylogeny


  • Developmental history of an organism affected by genes; emb; embryogenic changes due to aging and ends at death. Single lifetime



  • Evolutionary history of a Taxon (family or group of organisms) by relation to an evolutionary (ancestral) lineage.
  • 100T to 100M of years


Symmetry and Segmentation

  • describes the way in which the body of the animal meets the surrounding environment.
  • is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes.
  • Body Symmetry: orientation of the animal body in relation to environment.


Radial Symmetry


  • Body is laid equally from a central axis; any several planes passing through divides the animal into equal halves.
  • Ex: Body of Starfish


Bilateral Symmetry

  • Body is laid equally from a mid-sagittal plane; divides the body into two, mirror halves.
  • Ex: Vertebrate Animal


Midsagittal and Sagittal (lengthwise)

-Divides the R & L parts

Coronal (frontal planes)

-Divides the ventral (anterior) and dorsal (posterior) parts.

Transverse (horizontal)

-Divides the body into superior (upper) & inferior (lower) parts.



Superior – structures higher or going cranial

Inferior – structures lower or going caudad

Posterior – structures located dorsally or back part

Anterior – structures located ventrally or front (belly) part

* In a 4-legged animal (anterior-cranial; posterior-caudal; dorsal-vertebral location; ventral-belly location)

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Directional Terms

Anterior: In front of, front
Posterior: After, behind, following, toward the rear
Distal: Away from, farther from the origin
Proximal: Near, closer to the origin
Dorsal: Near the upper surface, toward the back
Ventral: Toward the bottom, toward the belly


Superior: Above, over
Inferior: Below, under
Lateral: Toward the side, away from the mid-line
Medial: Toward the mid-line, middle, away from the side
Rostral: Toward the front
Caudal: Toward the back, toward the tail




  • segmentation (metamerism) – Division of the body along the anteroposterior axis into a serial succession of segments.
  • Divides the body into duplicated sections or metamerism
  • Metamere – segment or unit section
  • More evident in invertebrates (ex: worms) than vertebrates.
  • Ex: Backbone; Muscles of the fish; Teeth


Body Regions


  • Head/Cranium
  • Neck/Cervical
  • Thorax / Pectoral region
  • Abdomen/Peritoneum
  • Hip/Pelvis
  • Urogenital/Perineum
  • Upper extremity
  • Appendages of pectoral or chest region
  • Lower extremity
  • Appendages of pelvic or hip region


Cranial cavity

  • -Oral/buccal cavity; Nasal cavity; Orbits; Middle-ear cavity (auditory ossicles / ear bones)

Vertebral cavity

  • Thoracic / Pectoral cavity
  • -Mediastinum – breast plate
  • -Pleural cavity – encases the
  • lungs
  • -Pericardial cavity – encases
  • the heart

Abdominal or Peritoneal cavity


Pelvic / Hip cavity – encases reproductive parts

  • Perineum – encases urogenital parts




Comparative anatomy reviewer Part 1

Evolution and speciation

  • Evolution – a change in the genetics of a population over time (generations).
  • Population – all individuals of the same species living in a defined area at the same time.

2 types

Microevolution – small genetic changes within a population

  • Occurs through several mechanisms
  • The best known is natural selection
  • Natural selection – is evolution that occurs because individuals with some traits survive and reproduce better than do individuals with other traits
  • Fitness – refers to the degree which individuals with certain traits are expected on average to survive and reproduce

Natural selection is simply the logical result of 4 features of living system:

  1. Variation – individuals from a population vary from one another
  2. Inheritance – parents pass on their traits to their offspring genetically
  3. Selection – some variants reproduce more than others
  4. Time – successful variations accumulate over many generations

Darwin’s 4 postulates on natural selection:

  1. More young are produced each generation that can survive to reproduce
  2. Individuals in a population vary in their characteristics
  3. Differences among individuals are based on genetic differences
  4. Individuals with few strong characteristics survive and reproduce better


  • A series of micro evolution
  • Speciation – the formation of new species when one ancestral species evolves more than 1 typical descendants
  • Since speciation occurs when one species evolve into more than 1 new species it increases the number of species that exist


  • Hereditary traits expressed (phenotype) in the organism’s morphology increases it’s chance for survival – mutation of genes
  • Evolutionary process of part modification by an organism to fit to its mode of life in a particular environment
  • Environmental factors that have influenced this mutation is through natural selection, mutant genes have a survival value


  • Arise of new species from primitive ancestor as a result of geographical isolation of a population that leads to genetic drift of species
  • (Ex: Palawan species may have the same Borneo species).
  • Genetic shift – short mutation (minor)
  • Genetic drift – long mutation ( major)
  • Consequence: reproductive isolation
  • Isolating populations in different environments can lead to the beginning of reproductive isolation. These results are consistent with the idea of geographic isolation is an important step of some speciation event.


  • Or niche, if habitat alters rapidly without giving time for species to adapt to new condition, the habitat disappears as species remains
  • Unsatisfactory habitat – the old way of life weakens
  • Some species may suit in the offers of the new habitat. Selection pressure is strengthened, shifting towards the new habitat. (+) Evolved species in a habitat.
  • Change in form – result of the interplay between changing environment and adapting organisms
  • Habitat – nature as living conditions, acts as selection pressure for the screening process of evolution, the genetic mutation and inheritance produce the adapting model.

2 types:

  • Linear evolution – habitat alters as 1 unit = change is in a straight line. (adaptation is dependent to each other)
  • Branching evolution –if the habitat subdivides into several units = original population of organism becomes isolated from one another (adaptation is independent).

Structures that arise from evolution and habitat formation can lead to…

Structures Specialized General
Morphology Modified part; uncommon Suited adequately; common
Function Restricted/limited Less restricted
Effectivity Maximum but specific Various uses


Adaptability Rarely adjusts; more pressured for change Flexible; less pressured for change


Evolutionary Trend or Morphocline

  • Gradual adaptive change in the evolution of a feature within a phyletic line. -> moderate change
  • (+) large population
  • Prolonged by selection pressure
  • Traces evolutionary path
  • Constant directional change -> progress at constant rate with temporary arrests advantageous for survival

Parallelism and Convergence


  • Evolutionary change in 2 or more lineages with common ancestor
  • Corresponding features undergo equivalent similarities.
  • Independent similarities within species share common ancestry.
  • Descendants appearance is same to their ancestors but exactness is not present due to effects of natural selection. Animals with identical functional requirements lead to similar structural adaptation.
  • Ex: Rats (non-flying) & Bats (flying) mammals
  • Kangaroo rat of North America and Jerboa of Africa
  • Similarities:
  • Long limbs and Short forelimbs
  • Loss of lateral toes and Long tail with white tip,
  • Large eyes and Compacted cervical vertebrae
  • Parallelism – The ancestor is common but both A and B have evolved a primitive trait independently.


  • Evolutionary change in 2 or more lineages that have similar features (ancestry is not common).
  • Two or more different phyletic lines had increasing similarity in features.
  • Descendants were more alike compared to their ancestor since ancestors are more remote.
  • Influenced by similar climates and habitats.
  • Ex: Sharks, Icthyosaur, Dolphins (similar habitats but different ancestors) more become similar in functional structures than phylogenetic relationship.

Divergent evolution – is when two different species share the same ancestral origins but have evolved differently.

  • Both the wooly mammoth and the elephant originated from a common ancestor, but the common ancestor eventually diverged, leading to two new species.

Convergent evolution – is when species with different ancestral origins have developed similar features.

  • These two species look very similar but are not closely related. Flying squirrels are placental mammals like whales, dogs, and humans,where as sugar gliders are marsupials like kangaroos and possums. The species Current similarity is an example of convergent evolution; they have begun to look more similar due to similar adaptations, not because of common ancestry.
  • The common ancestor was a primitive armored fish unlike any of them; shark has no terrestrial ancestor, ichthyosaur and dolphin have dissimilar terrestrial ancestors, nevertheless they have remarkable resemblance.


Geologists divide the history of the Earth into eras and periods, the boundaries of which were times of rapid change in the Earth’s crust and in its biota.

At least five times in the past 500 MY there have been many cases of mass extinction when as many as 60% of all genera died out within the span of 5 MY.

When do species become extinct?

Species become extinct when they cannot adapt to sudden shifts in their environment as:

  • Climatic change
  • Increase in competition for resources
  • Misbalance in predator-prey relationships
  • Alteration in host-parasites relation


  • Entire assemblages of animals become extinct when the scale of the environmental change is extreme major change in vegetation, or significant shift in sea level.
  • Catastrophic events such as impacts by asteroids and devastating volcanic activity could cause mass extinction.
  • Different phyletic lines evolve at different rates, each line evolves at different rates at different times, and different characters of one line evolve at different rates at the same time




  • Study of phylogenetic relationships
  • Active area of evolutionary biology
  • CLADISTICS –special area of systematics that studies phylogenetic relationships based on shared or derived traits.


  • Provides in-depth knowledge about evolution of traits within groups.
  • Traces the origin & spread of diseases especially zoonotic diseases (animal human).
  • Relation of species helps in formulation of advocacy programs for conservation of species.

2 Approaches in studying relationships of species…

  • Fossils –provide a preserved record of the history of life forms; portrays the phylogeny of life.
  • Hierarchical pattern of homology –different species that share the same structures depicts that they may have evolved from the same ancestor. (common features / traits shared close relationship of species; less traits shared distant relationships)
  • CLADISTICS –answers those gaps in systematics that do not rely in the number of shared characteristics.

Phyletic Line

  • A lineage that is relatively continuous & complete in the fossil record.
  • Genera (sing. Genus) are related by evolution (linear & branching) and progressive change from extinct organisms.
  • Each phyletic line evolves at diff. rates diff. times while diff. characters of 1 phyletic line evolve at diff. rates simultaneously.


  • Shows the pattern of evolutionary relationships or history of speciation.
  • Represented by a TREE that shows where points of ancestors speciated into 2 new species.


Dendograms & Cladistics

  • Modern vertebrates differ from their ancestors; evolutionary hx. Can be traced using similarities in morphological characteristics thus, relationships between groups would imply close relationships.
  • Primitive condition – ancestral
  • Derived condition-descendants


  • Summary representation of evolutionary course or phylogeny
  • Branched connections between related groups like a tree PHYLOGENETIC TREE
  • Illustrates the evolutionary history of related organisms
  • It also shows abundance & diversity of species



  • Legend: Every line that branches into species above the branch (descendants) arise from species below the branch point (ancestor).
  • Ex: Trees on the right shows the relationship between mouse, bird, lizard, snake.
  • Trees on the left shows relationship between salamander and frogs.



  • Primitive Traits (plesiomorphic characters) are characters of organisms that were present in the ancestor of a certain group of related organisms
  • –Ex: Ancestor of lizard, bird, alligator = scaly skin; 3-chambered heart; (+ )teeth; (-) wings
  • Derived Traits (apomorphic characters) are characters of organisms that have evolved within the group or related organisms that were not present in the ancestor.
  • Ex: birds, lizard, alligator = gizzard; 4-chambered heart, feathers, (-) teeth; wings


  • Character/s is present in immediate ancestor only but not in the earliest ancestor.
  • Derivative traits


  • Character/s is present in immediate ancestor and earlier ancestor.
  • Primitive traits
  • Ex: Birds developed wings but lost the primitive 4 legs that have been present with the birds’ ancestor.


  • Method in determining primitive vs. derived traits.
  • Determine 1 or more species that are relatives of the group of interest (ingroup), and the species equally related to all members of the group of interest (outgroup).
  • Character/s of comparison found common in both groups is considered Primitive trait, while, character/s found common only in one group but absent to other is considered as Derived trait.


Outgroup comparison

  • Bony skeleton
  • (+) trout, frog, mouse; (-) shark
  • Therefore, ancestor B had evolved a bony skeleton.
  • In general, provides evidence of ancestry that bony skeleton as a phylogenetic trait traced from ancestor B to trout, frog, mouse.


  • A paraphyletic group (incomplete clade); stage of evolutionary attainment (adaptation) expressed by an evolving group. (Ex: jawless to jawed fishes)
  • An incomplete clade lacks one or more component lineages.
  • If more distinct derived characters are present shared in groups a new GRADE is attained.


  • A natural evolutionary lineage which includes an ancestor +all and only descendants.
  • Descendants may have high similarity or difference from their ancestors (variation in morphology is not restricted).
  • CLADOGRAMS – a hypothetical diagram of lineages & evolutionary relationships (geological time scale is not included).


Cladogram (family tree) of a biological group. The red and blue boxes represent clades (i.e., complete branches). The green box is not a clade, but rather represents an evolutionary grade, an incomplete group, because the blue clade descends from it, but is excluded.

Types of Clades

Monophyletic clade

  • Includes an ancestor + all descendants

Paraphyletic clade

  • Includes more than one ancestor + but not all descendants

Polyphyletic clade

  • Does not share an immediate common ancestor



Anatomical and Evolutionary Concept

Taxonomic Principles

  • Biologists classify organisms into different categories mostly by judging degrees of apparent similarity and difference that they can see.
  • Assumption: The greater the degree of physical similarity = the closer the biological relationship.

Researchers begin their classification by:

  • looking for anatomical features that appear to have the same function as those found on other species.
  • determining whether or not the similarities are due to an independent evolutionary development or to descent from a common ancestor.
  • If the latter is the case, then the two species are probably closely related and
  • should be classified into the same or near biological categories.


Similarities: Homology, Analogy and Homoplasy


  • features of two or more organisms sharing common ancestry.
  • anatomical features, of different organisms, that have a similar appearance or function because they were inherited from a common ancestor that also had them.

The wing of a cat, bat, whale and your arm have the same functional types of bones as did our shared reptilian ancestor.   Therefore, these bones are homologous structures.


The more homologies two organisms possess, the more likely it is that they have a close genetic relationship.


Homologous characters — characters in different organisms that are similar because they were inherited from a common ancestor that also had that character.


An example of homologous characters is the four limbs of tetrapods Birds, bats, mice, and crocodiles all have four limbs. Sharks and bony fish do not. The ancestor of tetrapods evolved four limbs, and its descendents have inherited that feature — so the presence of four limbs is a homology.

Not all characters are homologies. For example, birds and bats both have wings, while mice and crocodiles do not. Does that mean that birds and bats are more closely related to one another than to mice and crocodiles?




Christian doctrines

Title (Latin)

Theme Issued By Date/Year Issues/concerns
Rerum Novarum On the condition of labor Pope Leo XIII 1891 ·         Enumerated the moral principles that should govern among other thing

·         The rights of the workers

·         The right to private property

·         Care for the poor

·         Duties of workers and employers

·         The role of public authorities

·         And the return to Christian morality

Quadragesimo  Anno On the social reconstruction Pope Pius XI 1931 ·         Commemoration of the 40th anniversary of Rerum Novarum

·         The term “social doctrine” was first used by Pope Pius XI

·         The effect of greed and concentrated economic power on working people and society

·         The demands of the common good and social justice oblige the whole country to work for an equitable distribution of good

·         The right and duty of the catholic church to make its special contribution in resolving the problems of the society

Divini Redemptoris Pope Pius XI 1937 ·         Exposed the errors and evils of communism that was more and more becoming popular at that time
Summi Pontificatus On the unity of human society Pope Pius XII 1939 ·         The church’s opposition against racial hostility, totalitarianism, and the idea of state becoming something ultimate to which everything else should be subordinated

·         The need for the state to recognize and respect freedom of religion

Mater et Magistra Christianity and social progress Pope John XXIII 1961 ·         Worldwide problem of the widening gap between the rich and the poor, the arms race, and the plight of the farmers

·         Tackles the problem of agriculture and plight of the farmers

·         Magna carta of agriculture

Pacem in Terris Peace on earth Pope John XXIII 1963 ·         Magna carta of human rights

·         The full range of human rights as the basis of peace

·         He encouraged disarmament, recognized quality of dignity, and right to self-development of each nation

·         Advocated reviewing of policies for allocation of resources and policies that concerns multinational corporations

·         Promoted the united nations organization as the worldwide public authority

·         Proposed a society based on subsidiarity

Gaudium et Spes The church in the modern world Second Vatican council 1965 ·         Human dignity as the basis for political an economical decisions

·         Warns and laments on the growing worldwide poverty and the threat of nuclear war

·         Also sees peace as an ordering of society built on justice

·         Encourages Christians to work for structures that would make a more just and peaceful world

Populorum Progressio On development of peoples Pope Paul VI 1967 ·         The pope coined the phrase:

o   “development is another term for peace”

o   “authentic development is not limited to economic growth”

·         He decried sinful structures that promote inequality

·         Stifles the fight of poor individuals and nations for human development

·         Resources be shared through aid, technical assistance, and fair trade relations

·         The core of this encyclical – The right of individuals and nations development

Octagesima Adviens A call to action Pope Paul VI 1971 ·         80th anniversary of rerum novarum

·         A synthesis of guidelines related to political activity

·         Calls for political action for change and economic justice

·         An objective analysis of the situation of one’s society with the aim of identifying action for justice

Justice in the world Synod of bishops 1971 ·         The mission of all members of the people of god to work for justice in the world

·         Bishops also show their adherence to the UN declaration of human rights

·         Emphasizing action for justice as a constituent part of being a Christian

·         The bishops also requires from Christians particularly the leaders, policies, and lifestyle that model justice so as to be credible in preaching justice

·         The reality of social sin that presently exists in every nation

Evangeliu Nuntiandi Evangelization today Pope Paul VI 1975 ·         Fighting for justice and people’ liberation from different forms of oppression

·         Personal and societal transformation and sees social justice as integral to faith

Redemptor Hominis Redeemer of mankind Pope John Paul II 1979 ·         The importance of human rights as the fundamental principle for all programs, systems, and regimes

·         A redirection of investments for armaments into investments for food at the service of life

·         A greater emphasis for the care of the environment

Laborem Execerns On human work Pope John Paul II 1981 ·         Tackles the modern meanings and problems of human work

·         The duties of all the members of the church towards it

·         Commitment to justice through the fostering of just wages, joint ownership and sharing in the management and profits of labor

Solicitudo Rei Socialis Social concerns of the church Pope John Paul II 1987 ·         Tackles the concepts of option for the poor, sinful structures, conversion to solidarity, and reform of world trade and financial systems

·         The great injustice of the few having so much and the many having almost nothing

·         Different situations of sin that worsen and perpetuate the situation

·         He also suggests plans of action towards integral and human development

Centesimus Annus The 100th year Pope John Paul II 1991 ·         Commemoration of the 100th year of rerum novarum

·         Calls for disarmament

·         Development of public policies for employment and job security

·         Establishment of institutions for arms control

·         Simplification of lifestyle, particularly those who are rich for the sake of the poor, not only individuals but also nations

Tertio Millenio Adviente The jubilee year 200 Pope John Paul II 1994 ·         Invites all Christians to a commitment to justice and peace

·         Pro-poor polices and structures

·         Substantial reduction or outright cancellation of international debt

·         Solution of problems involving unity and human rights particularly those of women

·         The jubilee year – the year of the lord’s mercy

Evangelium Vitae Gospel of life Pope John Paul II 1995 ·         Recognition of the sacred value of human life

·         He denounced the violence against life done to millions of human beings who are victims of war and poverty

·         Especially children who are forced into poverty, malnutrition, and hunger because of an unjust distribution of resources

Ecclesia in Asia Jesus Christ the savior and his mission of love and service in Asia Pope John Paul II 1999 ·         Published in the event of the pope’s visit to India

·         Deals on Asian religious, cultural, social, economic, and political realities viz a viz the catholic church in Asia

·         The Asian church’s mission is a mission of communion and dialogue

·         Clarifies the social teachings of the church

·         Particularly on the dignity of the human person, preferential option for the poor, education, peacemaking, globalization, foreign debt, and environment

The Participation of Catholics in the Political Life Pope John Paul II 2002 ·         Coherence between faith and life, gospel and culture

·         Exhorts christians to fulfill their duties faithfully in the spirit of the gospel

·         Inspires christians to be proud of the opportunity to carry out their earthly activity  in such a way as to integrate human, domestic, professional, scientific, and technical enterprises with religious values under whose supreme direction all things are ordered to the glory of god

Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church


The pontifical council for justice and peace in Vatican 2004 ·         A compilation and systematic presentation of the social teaching of the church

·         A concise but complete overview of the church’s social teaching

·         Help the readers to understand the motives that prompt the church to intervene with her doctrine in the social sector

·         To sustain and foster the activity of christians in the social sector

·         Help the readers see the reasons for an encounter, dialogue, and cooperation in serving the common good

Deus Caritas Est God is love Pope Benedict XVI 2005 ·         Theological-philosophical reflection on love

·         Inherent link between god’s love and human love

·         Necessity of loving others as a central element of the social teaching of the church

·         Describes the social teaching of the church as a body of doctrines that helps in the attainment of social justice by forming consciousness through the purification and illumination of reason

Medellin Conference Documents Latin american episcopal conference 1968 ·         Aim to adapt the social teaching of the church to the life situations of the latin american church
Puebla Conference Documents Latin american episcopal conference 1979 ·         Aim to adapt the social teaching of the church to the life situations of the latin american church
The Documents of the Federation of Asian Bishop’s Conference


Jan. 10-19, 1995 ·         Denounce the forces of death that plague the continent

·         Envisions a unity in diversity among the people in asia

·         They envision a holistic life

·         Gives attention to whatever threatens, weakens, diminishes, and destroys the life of individuals, groups, or people

·         Whatever devalues human beings  conceived, born, infant, or old

·         Whatever socio-cultural, religious, political, economic, or environmental factor that threatens or destroys life in our countries

The Document of the Second Plenary Council of the Philippines (PCP II) Plenary council composed of representatives from all sectors of the Philippine church 1991

·         Aims to reanimate the filipino’s life in Christ Jesus and unite all things in him

·         It starts with an analysis of the present situation in the Philippines in the light of Christian faith

·         Suggesting ways towards the realization of its vision of a renewed church

·         Integral evangelization  and a community of disciples

·          Offers a new spirituality of social transformation towards liberation from all forms of oppression

Social analysis – ideologies

1)”Kung graduate ka ng _________, madali ka makahanap ng trabaho.”

Certainly elite colleges like Harvard, Stanford, Princeton, and Yale University and top universities in the Philippines such as UST, ADMU, UP, or DLSU have name recognition that could help you secure an interview or win a job over other candidates. However, the reputation of your alma mater does not translate directly into higher wages or career success. But enrolling in a top universities and colleges can help you build influential networks that open doors after graduation.

For example in a job prospect, when you enter an interview. The interviewers first will look at both of your skills and education. If you have high grades that is good then let us resume, but if you do not have well speaking skills, you cannot overcome your nervousness, you cannot answer their questions well, and you cannot assured them about your needed abilities for the job, do you think they will accept you? Certainly not. Education alone cannot guarantee success in life .It must be followed by skills. Education is knowledge while skill is application. One need to have both to success in life. If you have aspiration and drive, you will do well no matter where you go.

2) “If you take your studies seriously, you will succeed.”

Achieving good grades and high class position are poor predictors of future success in life. Because bad days happen in life and fortunately for all those kids who got straight A’s all the way through yes they are intelligent, how well you take a test is not an indicator of how well you will thrive in the real world. You can get all A’s and still flunk life or have trouble finding a good and stable job. High grades doesn’t guarantee you success in life.

Bad grades, failed exams and bad records do not define you after these campus years. Your grades do not translate in the real world and your worth is not dependent on a number. Your GPA may help you get that first job or give you a scholarship, the way your NMAT score helped you get into your first or second choice of medical school, but like your score, it becomes unimportant after you leave that chapter of your life. Worst things will happen to you in life and this is just a minor bump on the long road ahead of you. The important part is that you learn from this failure and work harder to make up for it. Because failure teaches us a lot more than what we learn from our textbooks, from our teachers, from our schools/universities. Failure has lessons of perseverance, determination and loss. It will teach us how to succeed in life, how to enjoy and value our life.

3) “A rich person is one who knows how to save money.”

You’ll never get rich by just saving money. It’s a simple fact of life. Unless you’re an ultra-high earner, saving alone won’t make you rich. The answer is simple and requires a small distinction. The key difference is what you do with the money you save. Just simply saving money, whether you put it under a mattress, bury it in a can in your backyard or put it in a saving account earning a 1% interest, will never allow you to grow meaningful wealth if you start from nothing. Saving money isn’t necessarily a bad idea. It can help you in lots of ways. But, in the later years, it’s not how we get rich. Instead, you must invest your savings. That is the key.

Since saving is the only way to accumulate (save) wealth. Those whose wealth has gone up have seen it go up by saving it – more accurately investing it, and being buy and hold investors. That does take discipline, but it works better than lottery tickets, trying to work triple overtime.  Saving in a saving account won’t make you rich. You don’t need to use fancy economic jargon or know this year’s “hottest stock.” You don’t have to come from an affluent family, and you don’t even have to earn a massive paycheck. For most people, it all boils down to one thing: investing. “On average, millionaires invest 20% of their household income each year. Their wealth isn’t measured by the amount they make each year, but by how they’ve saved and invested over time,”

4) “There is massive poverty in the Philippines because Filipinos are lazy to look for a job.”

The most notable cause of poverty identified by the majority, both in interviews and the training, was ‘laziness’. This is characterized as having low interest in a good life, lack of motivation and initiative, low intellect, dependency thinking, reliance on assistance from others, and lack of life skills (to plan and organize their life). The overall feeling was that these types of people are ‘no hopers’ and in need of some form of assistance to survive; they do not have the ability and life skills to manage alone.

Some people are lazy because they lack the fundamental belief that they can do something and anything good to lift themselves from their present condition. So, each thought that comes into their mind end up in in the trash bin – “I can’t do it”. So they sit back and before they know it, they become clumsy and lose all motivations, energy and drive to do anything. Therefore, as adults, we have to constantly encourage one another to try something different and to keep trying without giving up hope and more importantly that we can all do anything if we set our heart and mind on it. With this orientation people will be less afraid to try something because it does not matter if they fail, because it is also ok to fail. Stand up for yourself and do something meaningful. “Proverbs 10:4 – Lazy hands make for poverty, but diligent hands bring wealth.”

Ecology reviewer

Activity 1

Sampling method

Sampling – is the process of getting a small portion (known as sample) from the whole (known as population).

Sample – a representative of the population

Population – entire group or measurement

A sufficient number of sample can best represent the entire population

A sampling technique should be used to plot or collect the samples

In this activity simple random method was used, it will be applied using a square plot called quadrant

2 main types of sampling methods:

  1. Probability sampling – one in which every unit in the population has a chance ( >0) of being selected in the sample

Type of Probability Sampling Method

  • Simple Random Sampling – the basic sampling technique where we select a group of subjects (a sample) for study from a larger group (a population). Each individual is chosen entirely by chance and each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.
  • Systematic Sampling – statistical method involving the selection of elements from an ordered sampling frame. The most common form of systematic sampling is an equal-probability method.
  • Stratified Sampling – the researcher divides the entire population into different subgroups or strata, then randomly selects the final subjects proportionally from the different strata.
  • Probability Proportional to Size Sampling – It is a method of sampling that takes the varying size of each item within the population into account when selecting the audit sample.
  • Cluster or Multistage Sampling – when “natural” but relatively heterogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population. It is often used in marketing research. In this technique, the total population is divided into these groups (or clusters) and a simple random sample of the groups is selected.

  1. Non-probability sampling – any sampling method where some elements of the population have no chance of selection

Type of Non-probability sampling Method

  • Accidental Sampling – is a type of non-probability sampling that involves the sample being drawn from that part of the population that is close to hand.
  • Quota Sampling – the assembled sample has the same proportions of individuals as the entire population with respect to known characteristics, traits or focused phenomenon.
  • Purposive sampling – starts with a purpose in mind and the sample is thus selected to include people of interest and exclude those who do not suit the purpose. Use when you want to access a particular subset of people.


Total Area = Length x Width

Actual Total Area = Total Area x Equivalent Size

Compute the sample size of the total area using 5% error instead of 10%.

Where: N – total area

e – percentage error

n – sample size

                                 Total Area

Sample size =   ————————————–

                            1 + (Total Area x e2)

Sampling selection

Quadrant sampling is one of the methods used to obtain a sample from the field. A quadrant is any circular, rectangular, or square plot used to count the sample.

Compute for the number of quadrats using a 25 mmquadrant size.

                                              Sample Size

Number of Quadrants = —————————–

                                             Quadrant Size

Activity 2

Topographic map


Map descriptions

  • Maps – are diagrammatic representation of the surface of the earth

It includes:

  • Compass rose – indicates which way is north, south, east, and west
  • Scale – to estimate distance
  • Cartography – study and practice of map making
  • Included in a map is:
  1. Orientation – direction
  2. Scale – represented in ratio
  3. Data – depending on usage and map features

Types of maps:

  • Climate maps – gives general information about the climate and precipitation of a region
  • Cartographers/mapmakers – use colors to show different climate or precipitation zones
  • Economic/resource maps – features the type of natural resources or economic activity that dominates an area
  • Cartographers/mapmakers – use symbols to show the locations of natural resources or economic activities
  • Political maps – they indicate state, national boundaries, capital, and major cities
  • Capital city – usually marked with a star within a circle
  • Physical map – illustrates the physical features of an area such as mountains, rivers, and lakes.
  • Colors – are used to show relief
  • Water is shown in – Blue
  • Lower elevations is shown in – Green
  • Higher elevations is shown in – Orange/Brown
  • Road maps – it shows major and minor highways, it also shows roads, airport, railroad tracks, cities, etc.
  • Used by people to plan trips and for driving directions
  • Topographic/contour maps – includes contour lines to show the shape and elevation of an area.
  • Lines that are close together indicate – steep terrain
  • Lines that are far apart indicate a – flat terrain
  • Characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of elevations depicted by contour lines
  • Isohype – contour lines that connect contiguous points of the same altitude

Parts of topographic map

  • shows topography, or land contours represented by contour lines
  • contour lines – curves that connect contiguous points of the same altitude

Rules in reading topographic maps

  • Rule of V’s – sharp pointed v’s usually are in stream valleys, with the drainage channel passing through the point of V
  • V – Pointing upstream, downstream is the flow of water. A consequence of erosion
  • Rule of O’s – closed loops are normally an uphill on the inside and downhill on the outside
  • Innermost loop – the highest area
  • Loop – represents a depression
  • Hachures – a loop with lines radiating from the inside of the loop, like volcanoes
  • Spacing of contours
  • Steep slope – close contours
  • Shallow slope – distant contours
  • Cliff – two or more contour line merging

Activity 3

Terrestrial climatic factors

  • Ecosystem – a complex unit of environment consisting of major biotic communities and their interactions with the abiotic factors
  • Can be classified as terrestrial and aquatic biomes
  • Biome – a distinct ecosystem with define vegetation and climatic components

Abiotic factors – non-living components of the ecosystem

  • Classified into climatic and physiographic

Climatic factors consists:

  1. Light – an electromagnetic radiation consisting of visible and non-visible light
  • It is absorbed, reflected, and converted to other forms and end up us heat energy
  • Direct light – light that directly felt
  • Reflected light – light that is scattered due to shade
  • Dispersed light – light that is bended

Importance of light:

  • Affects the water temperature
  • Affects the biological process
  • For photosynthesis

Factors affecting light:

  • Cloudiness
  • Vegetation cover
  • Seasonal patterns
  1. Temperature – measurement of intensity of heat and cold
  • Difference between the soil and air temperature varies, the sun and air heats the soil. Air losses heat easy while soil holds the heat.
  • Soil is warmer than air in the night
  • air is warmer than the soil in the day

Factors affecting temperature:

  • latitude
  • altitude
  • cloud cover
  • winds and ocean current
  • aspect
  • length of day

Importance of temperature

  • affects the life cycle of plants and animals
  • influences weather and tides
  • controls the freeze and thaws of ice caps
  1. Wind – creates a mass density that gives pressure the lower elevation the less in high altitude
  • Barometer – instrument used to measure air pressure
  • Anemometer – instrument used to measure wind speed
  • Air movement – result of uneven heating of the earth
  • Coriolis effect – the rotation of the earth causes the wind to move horizontally and be deflected
  • Wind gradient – the rate of increase of wind strength with unit increase in height above ground level
  • Elevation is responsible for the difference in air pressure
  • Air pressure decreases as the elevation increases, air becomes thinner

Importance of wind:

  • Creates weather system in the atmosphere
  • Responsible for different conditions (morphological features and adaptations for different organisms)

Factors affecting air pressure:

  • Temperature
  • Altitude
  1. Fire/Heat – result of converting the light to heat, air will tend to rise when temperature increase
  2. Moisture /Humidity – amount of water vapor present in the air
  • Sling psychrometer – consists of wet and dry thermometer used to measure humidity
  • Relative humidity – measurement of water content of air relative to saturation water vapor density
  • Relative humidity decreases when the temperature is high
  • The higher the temperature the water vapor air can hold increases
  • Saturation water vapor density is lower when the temperature is low

Factors affecting humidity:

  • Air temperature
  • Amount of water vapor in the air

Measurement used in the activity:

  • Light meter
  • Soil thermometer
  • GPS
  • Sling psychrometer


%light =

reflected light


Direct light

%light =

dispersed light

—————————–  x100

Direct light

%relative humidity =

water vapor density

——————————————————-    x100

Saturation water vapor density

Activity 4

Soil Analysis


Soil characteristics

  • Soil – the edaphic factor of the ecosystem which has physio-chemical characteristics
  • Physical characteristics – particles present, profile, and moisture content
  • Chemical characteristics – nutrients and trace elements
  • The availability of these elements from the soil depends on soil pH, organic matter content, and soil texture
  • Soil texture – influences the drainage characteristics which affect the transport of the elements

Composition of soil

  • Soil is the product of physical, chemical, and biological weathering.
  • Soil is composed of :
  • 40% minerals
  • 10% organic matter
  • 25% water
  • 25% air

Soil moisture

  • Gravitational water – when water saturates the soil and drains
  • Capillary water – water that is left in the soil pores, the one used by plants
  • Hygroscopic water – water that is present in the molecules of soil, can be removed only by oven drying

Soil texture

  • Soil has 3 main size particles consisting of clay, silt, and sand
  • Particle size analysis – the determination of soil texture
  • Clay particles = less than 0.002 mm
  • Silt particles = 0.002 mm to 0.02 mm
  • Sand particles = 0.02 mm to 0.2 mm

Profiles of soil

  • Soil profile can be observed through the direct observation of the layers or horizons of the soil.
  • O horizon – organic materials consisting of litter, humus, and other decomposing materials
  • A horizon – the topsoil
  • E horizon – thin layer, boundary between A and B horizons

The accumulation area

  • B horizon – the subsoil
  • Where clays, soluble salts, and leached humus are stored
  • C horizon – composed of disintegrated rocks and other particles from the parent material
  • R horizon – parent material, composed of huge rock which is the foundation

Soil nutrients

  • 3 major elements composing the soils:
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorus
    • Potassium
  • These are the main components of commercial fertilizers
  • The soil organic matter came from decaying plants and animals such as the complex substance humus
  • Decomposition of organic materials or other waste materials can cause the decrease the soil pH making the soil acidic

Guide Question:

  1. Why are pore spaces so important in soils?


Pore spaces are important in the soil, because it determines the nature of living space, the amount of water and air it can hold.

  1. Why is it important for soil to have good drainage?


Soil that has good drainage helps plants to grow. It provides adequate oxygen to the roots of the plants to encourage proper root development.

  1. What are the traits of the soil perfectly suited for agricultural field?


A soil must be deep, well drained, neutral and retain sufficient soil moisture for crop growth.  A soil must contain a mixture of both clay and sand, allowing for a gradual passage of both water and air to circulate around plant roots. It will also add a valuable amount of nutrition to the soil to feed new plants.


Loam is composed of sand, silt and clay in relatively even concentration (about 40-40-20% concentration respectively. It generally contain more nutrients and  humus than sandy soils, have better infiltration and drainage than silty soils, and are easier to till than clay soils. Loams are gritty, moist, and retain water easily. It retains nutrients well and retains water while still allowing the water to flow freely.

  1. What are the traits of the soil perfectly suited for a large building or major highway?


– Should  be  low in organic matter content and native fertility, low in ability to retain moisture and nutrients, low in cation exchange and buffer capacities, and rapidly permeable (i.e., they permit rapid movement of water and air). Sandy soils usually have high bulk densities and are therefore well-suited for road foundations and building sites.

  1. What does your pH value mean?


Soils may be classified as either acid or alkaline on a pH scale running from 0, the most acid to 14, the most alkaline, with a neutral at 7.  Acidity is a function of chemical composition of parent material, rate of leaching which in turn is closely related to the amount of rainfall. Plants mostly prefer neutral or slightly acid soil.

  1. What factors affect the soil pH?


Parent material – either basic or acid rock

Rainfall – Water passing through the soil leaches basic nutrients such as calcium and magnesium from the soil. They are replaced by acidic elements such as aluminum and iron. For this reason, soils formed under high rainfall conditions are more acidic than those formed under arid (dry) conditions.


Fertilizers – both organic and chemical fertilizer makes the soil acidic

Plant uptake- Plants take up basic cations such as K+, Ca++, and Mg++. When these are removed from the soil, they are replaced with H+ in order to maintain neutrality.

Organic or decaying matter – makes the soil acidic



HW on Religious education

Activity #5

A writer wrote that the Filipino culture is a damaged culture characterized by a failure in nationalism, total devotion to those within the circle, total war to those outside, contempt for the public good, submission to doctrine and authority, and national ambition to change nationality. How do you react to this? Do you agree to this opinion? Why?

I come across an interesting topic on the internet that tries to explain why a great nation like ours, lagged behind economically and socially. The country struggles with an image problem: excessive corruption, extreme poverty, and source of cheap manual labor. These are some of the general impressions of the world about the Philippines that, while unpleasant, are undeniably true. Despite the many negative comments that quite often overshadow the positive, there are definitely so many things to be proud of.

  • Our caring ways – We are a highly-relational people, proficient in emotionally and socially connecting with others.
  • Hospitality even abroad – Foreigners who come to visit the Philippines speak of Filipinos going out of their way to help them when lost, or the heartwarming generosity of a Filipino family hosting a visitor in their home.
  • Pinoy creativity – While being creative is not an exclusive trait possessed only by Filipinos, what makes ours distinct is the artistry, expressiveness, spontaneity, and humor that altogether define Filipino creativity.
  • Adaptability – We are highly adaptable to different people, cultures, and situations that generally make us well-rounded beings.

These are just some of the qualities (among many others) that can truly make us proud of who we are and where we come from. We should exemplify these traits for the benefit of others and our nation. By doing so, we continue to embody the best and the positive in us.

There is nothing wrong with our culture. We Filipinos don’t have to get transfusions of Korean or Singaporean blood to achieve inclusive economic growth. We just have to persevere in building inclusive, rather than extractive, political and economic institutions. We definitely need better leaders to set examples, implement laws correctly and justly, to set the right environment for the proper growth economically, politically, etc. The Filipino culture is not a damaged culture. It is far from being damaged Filipino culture held its own body and soul wherever the Filipino might be, in identity and spirituality. In spite of all the incursions by foreign cultures notably Spanish and American. In fact Filipino culture is better characterized as a culture of invulnerability.

Activity #6

Cite the most serious social sin being committed against the following groups. What is/are the effect/s of that sin and what can you possibly do to help eliminate that sin?

Group Sin and its effects I will …
1.       Youth Drug and alcohol abuse – frequent use of alcohol or drugs can result in tragedy: alcohol overdose, an accident when under the influence of alcohol or drugs, or an arrest associated with alcohol or drugs that may cost you your reputation and/or your freedom. To those that are suffering from alcohol and drug addiction we should help them by helping them through positive self-esteem, a supportive family, and positive role models that help teens gain confidence to make good choices.



2.       Workers Minimum wage – workers are struggling to get by working 2 or 3 low paying jobs. No one should work full time and yet still live in poverty. Minimum wage still leaves full-time workers more than 16 % below the poverty line. We should help the workers to increase the minimum wage because With salary adjustment, Filipinos, will have access to better housing, advanced medical services and avail to higher loan options. If people are spending money it means that consumption of goods and services are going up, this action will then be bigger business for entrepreneurs, which will later on lead to job creation to supply that demand.
3.       Children Children without Parental care – Children without parental care are at a high risk of abuse, exploitation and neglect. Large numbers of children end up in institutional care. Inadequate individual care of institutions can socially and emotional impair children We should the help those children that have no parents because Adoption has given and continues to give parents the opportunity to lead fulfilling, meaningful lives alongside their children, and in turn, provides children with no parents opportunities in life that once thought unachievable.
4.       Women Domestic violence – One in three female homicide victims is killed by an intimate partner. Twenty-four percent of adult women have been physically assaulted by a partner at some time in their lives. We should help those women by educating and working with young boys and girls promoting respectful relationships and gender equality. Working with youth is a “best bet” for faster, sustained progress on preventing and eradicating gender-based violence.
5.       Family Divorce – It interrupt the stability and predictability that children need. Children may feel a great loss as well as anxiety, anger, and sadness. Children may fear being abandoned or losing their parents’ love. We should help our family by making time to connect lovingly with your spouse every day. A couple can significantly improve their chances of marital success by devoting as little as 15 minutes a day exclusively to each other.

Activity #7

Based on your opinion, cite at least 3 positive and negative elements of the Filipino culture. Explain why you consider them positive or negative

Positive Negative
1.       Pakikipagkapwa-tao

This is the shared sense of identity and consciousness of the ‘other’. It is treating others with the respect and dignity as an equal- not someone below the individual.

1.       Pakikisama

Submitting oneself to the will of the group for the sake of camaraderie and unity. Failure to comply with the group demand, the person will be called “walang pakikisama or selfish”.

2.       Hard Work and Industrious

With resourcefulness comes hard work. Filipinos are very determined and persevering in accomplishing whatever they set their minds to.

2.       Jackpot mentality

A “get rich quick” mentality of some Filipinos who would rather engage in fast ways of acquiring money than through hard work and sacrifice by getting in lottery, joining raffle draws and other.

3.       Faith and Religiosity

The Philippines is approximately 85 percent Christian (mostly Roman Catholic). This is a reflection of the Filipinos’ strong faith in God as seen in their various practices.

3.       Crab mentality

A Filipino attitude characterized by an attempt to “pull down” someone who has achieved success beyond the others. This is done out of jealousy and insecurity.

HW on logic A,E,I,O statements


The “a” proposition:  all s are p.  (Universal affirmative)

  1. Philippines, Japan vow closer defense ties

The Philippines and Japan have agreed to work together for the signing of a deal that would enable the transfer of defense equipment to the Philippine military in the wake of China’s aggressive expansion in the South China Sea.

All Japanese are helpful to the Philippine military

  1. 12 senators agree BBL needs revisions

MANILA, Philippines – Only by substantially revising the draft Bangsamoro Basic Law (BBL) can it withstand legal scrutiny before the Supreme Court, according to the Senate committee on constitutional amendments and revision of codes. The committee’s position was contained in a report signed by 12 of 14 panel members including its chairperson Sen. Miriam Santiago.

All senators are committed in revising the BBL

  1. Live: pope Francis opens ‘holy door’ for new jubilee

The pope expressed his hope that the new jubilee will be “for all believers a true moment of encounter with the mercy of god.”

All Christians are merciful

  1. Metro manila Christmas traffic ‘the worst ever’

The 2015 global driver satisfaction index conducted by the traffic and navigation app waze named metro manila as the worst in the world, giving it a rating of 0.4, even below the scale from 1-10 with one being “miserable,” while 10 is “satisfying.” 

All traffic apps that were conducted in metro manila are accurate

  1. DOH seeks strict ban on piccolo

Manila, Philippines – the department of health (DOH) yesterday launched the “iwas paputok” campaign with a strong call to local government units (LGU’S) and the police to strictly implement the ban against the use of piccolo firecrackers, the leading cause of injuries during the previous New Year revelry.

All health workers in the DOH are committed in banning the use of piccolo

The “e” proposition:  no s are p.  (Universal al negative)

  1. BBL unconstitutional – Miriam

Sen. Miriam Defensor Santiago yesterday said the proposed Bangsamoro basic law (BBL) designed by negotiators to bring peace in violence-wracked Mindanao is unconstitutional, citing her committee report which she will soon release

No BBL bill are constitutional

  1. SC affirms parts of dap as unconstitutional

The supreme court (SC) affirmed today its July 1, 2014 decision that declared unconstitutional certain acts and practices under the disbursement acceleration program for violations of the doctrine of separation of powers and the prohibition against inter-branch transfer of appropriations.

No DAP are constitutional

  1. Nuisance bets nixed 100 for president, 9 for VP, 96 for senator out

A total of 100 presidential aspirants, nine vice presidential aspirants, and 96 senatorial aspirants have been declared as nuisance candidates by the first and second divisions of the commission on elections (comelec). Comelec chairman Andres Bautista said those declared as nuisance candidates may still file a motion with the commission en banc.

No nuisance candidates are worthy to become a government official

  1. Alleged Duterte human rights abuses are all recycled lies, spokesman says

DAVAO CITY – The alleged human rights abuses committed by Presidential candidate and Davao City Mayor Rodrigo Duterte recently raised by the London-based organization Amnesty International (AI) are nothing but scraps and repeated lies, the mayor’s spokesperson said on Tuesday morning

No allegations about human rights abuses of Duterte are true

  1. Respect BBL process, solons urge Miriam, other oppositors

Lawmakers appealed yesterday to the critics and oppositors of the proposed Bangsamoro basic law (BBL) to “respect the process” and be part in crafting a “legally sound” and mutually acceptable peace measure, instead of immediately shooting it down and reverting the peace process to scratch.

No critics of the BBL are in favor of passing the BBL

The “I” proposition: some* s are p.  (Particular affirmative)

  1. More people see Noy as successful president

Those who said Aquino will be a successful president rose from 29 percent in June 2014 to 35 percent in September 2015, according to the SWS sept. 2 to 5 poll, results of which were published in the newspaper business world yesterday.

Some filipino’s are faithful to the president

  1. Small sure steps, better opportunities for ASEAN

While the 10 ASEAN members are of a less cohesive nature and highly challenged by geographic boundaries defined by huge bodies of water, it is still a dream that is worth nurturing for the simple fact that when truly united, it carries the potential of being a global economic powerhouse.

Some foreign countries are hopeful for the potential of ASEAN countries

  1. Philippine indigenous coffee catches interest of int’l buyers

Due to the strong demand for espresso coffee among Korean consumers, hundreds of international buyers and food connoisseurs marveled at the organically cultivated indigenous coffee, coffee nibs and coffee powder presented by pacita u. Juan, president and chief executive officer of the Philippine coffee board Inc. Moreover, Philippine adlai was seen as an interesting product because of its unique taste and versatility in various food preparations. Adlai, which is also known as job’s tear, comes from the same family of wheat, corn and rice.

Some international buyers are interested in adlai coffee in the Philippines

  1. More Filipinos rate themselves poor in Q4 – SWS survey

In its latest report, the SWS said that 59 percent said they were poor, 20 percent were “on the line” or on the borderline of becoming poor, and 21 percent said they were not poor. The survey was conducted last November 26-28 among 1,200 respondents.

Some filipino’s are poor

  1. 10-m Filipinos remain jobless

Based on the survey conducted among 1,200 respondents last September 2-5, SWS said the workforce participation rate in the September survey was 69.4 percent or an estimated 42.4 million adults. It was lower than June survey’s 74 percent or an estimated 45.2 million adults.

Some filipino’s are jobless

The “o” proposition: some*s are not p.  (Particular negative)

  1. Still below target: government infra spending up 24.3%

In a statement, the DBM said a total of p243 billion was spent for infrastructure and other capital outlays from January to September, up 24.3 percent year-on-year, but still 16 percent behind the p289.3 billion target. This was despite a 50-percent surge in infrastructure spending to p28.8 billion in September.

Some government projects are not yet done or fully implemented

  1. China airstrips on artificial islands to quadruple

Beijing – china’s campaign of island building in the South China Sea might soon quadruple the number of airstrips available to the people’s liberation army in the highly contested and strategically vital region. That could be bad news for other regional contenders, especially the United States, the Philippines and Vietnam. 

Some China airstrips in the South China Sea are not good news for the other countries like the US, Philippines, or Vietnam

  1. Duterte tops survey? SWS questionnaire questioned

“In this privately commissioned survey, the question itself already mentioned Duterte as a substitute candidate for president,” lacierda said. He said the usual survey of SWS would be an agnostic question and that there would be no mention of names.

Some SWS survey’s about Duterte are not reliable

  1. Air France: Threat to diverted Paris-bound plane was false alert

PARIS  – Air France said an anonymous threat which led it to divert to Montreal its flight AF083 between San Francisco and Paris on Tuesday was a false alert. “After a full security search, false alert confirmed by local authorities following an anonymous threat,” the carrier said in its Twitter account.

Some anonymous threats in France are not all true and was just a false alert

  1. Ex-BuCor execs face graft raps over P3.7M procurement anomaly

The Office of the Ombudsman has found probable cause to file graft charges against former officials of the Bureau of Corrections (BuCor) in connection with the alleged anomalous procurement of materials for the construction of the New Bilibid Prison (NBP) building in 2012.

Some BuCor executives are not trustworthy because of the anomalies in the NBP